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The power of Exosome therapy

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC) exosomes are small extracellular vesicles released by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. These stem cells are a type of multipotent stromal cell found in adipose (fat) tissue, and they have the ability to differentiate into various cell types, such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes.

Exosomes are membrane-bound vesicles, typically ranging from 30 to 150 nm in size, that are secreted by various cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication by transferring proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (such as mRNA and microRNA) between cells. The cargo within exosomes can influence the behavior and function of recipient cells, making them key players in various physiological and pathological processes.

AD-MSC exosomes have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential therapeutic applications. They have been found to possess regenerative, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties, which make them promising candidates for treating a wide range of conditions, including tissue injury, degenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Some of the potential therapeutic applications of AD-MSC exosomes include:

Tissue repair and regeneration

They can promote cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, helping in the regeneration of damaged tissues, such as skin, bone, and cartilage.

Wound healing

AD-MSC exosomes can stimulate the formation of new blood vessels, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue remodeling, which can enhance the wound healing process.

Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects

They can modulate immune cell functions, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair, making them useful in the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.


AD-MSC exosomes have been found to protect neurons from damage and promote neural regeneration in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Differences between (ADMSC) exosomes and exosomes derived from other sources

Difference between ADMSC Exosome and Exosome derived from others cells

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by various cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The primary differences between adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) exosomes and exosomes derived from other sources stem from their origin, composition, and functional properties.

1. Source of origin

ADMSC exosomes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells found in adipose tissue, while exosomes from other sources can be isolated from different cell types, tissues, or biofluids. For example, exosomes can be derived from bone marrow-derived MSCs, umbilical cord-derived MSCs, or other cell types such as cancer cells, immune cells, or endothelial cells.

2. Molecular composition

Exosomes derived from different sources may have unique protein, lipid, and nucleic acid compositions that reflect their parent cell type. These variations in composition can result in distinct biological effects when they interact with recipient cells. For example, ADMSC exosomes might contain specific proteins or microRNAs that are involved in adipogenesis, while exosomes from bone marrow-derived MSCs might have different molecular contents that are relevant to hematopoiesis.

3. Functional properties

Due to differences in their molecular composition, exosomes from various sources can exhibit unique functional properties. ADMSC exosomes have been reported to possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties. In contrast, exosomes from other sources may demonstrate different functional properties depending on their cellular origin, such as tumor-promoting effects in the case of exosomes derived from cancer cells or immune response modulation in the case of exosomes derived from immune cells.

4. Therapeutic applications

The unique properties of exosomes from different sources might make them more suitable for specific therapeutic applications. For example, ADMSC exosomes have demonstrated potential in wound healing, tissue repair, and the treatment of various diseases like cardiovascular disorders, whereas exosomes from other sources might have different therapeutic potentials based on their unique properties.

In conclusion, the main differences between ADMSC exosomes and exosomes derived from other sources lie in their origin, molecular composition, functional properties, and potential therapeutic applications. The choice of exosome source will depend on the specific research or clinical application being considered.

Difference between stem cells and vegetable sources

Exosomes derived from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) and those derived from plant (vegetal) sources have distinct differences in terms of their origin, composition, biogenesis, and potential applications. Here are some key differences between the two types of exosomes:

1. Origin

ADMSC exosomes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells found in adipose tissue of animals, particularly mammals like humans. In contrast, plant-derived exosomes (also known as plant-derived extracellular vesicles) are secreted by plant cells, such as fruits, vegetables, and other plant tissues.

2. Biogenesis

The biogenesis of exosomes in animal cells, including ADMSCs, occurs through the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) pathway or ESCRT-independent mechanisms, resulting in the release of exosomes through multivesicular bodies (MVBs) fusing with the plasma membrane. On the other hand, plant-derived exosomes have a distinct biogenesis process that is not fully understood but may involve unique mechanisms related to the plant endomembrane system.

3. Composition

ADMSC exosomes contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (such as microRNAs) that are specific to their mammalian origin and reflect the characteristics of their parent cells. Plant-derived exosomes also contain proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, but their composition is specific to their plant source and can differ significantly from animal-derived exosomes.

4. Immunogenicity

ADMSC exosomes have low immunogenicity and can modulate immune responses in mammals, making them suitable for potential therapeutic applications in humans. Plant-derived exosomes, due to their non-mammalian origin, may have higher immunogenicity when administered to humans or other mammals, which could limit their therapeutic potential.

5. Functional properties and potential applications

ADMSC exosomes have demonstrated potential in various therapeutic applications, such as wound healing, tissue repair, and the treatment of diseases like cardiovascular disorders and neurological disorders. Plant-derived exosomes, on the other hand, have been studied for their potential in agriculture, such as enhancing plant growth, stress resistance, and inter-kingdom communication. While there is growing interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived exosomes in human health, more research is needed to fully understand their potential applications and any associated risks.

In summary, the main differences between ADMSC exosomes and plant-derived exosomes are their origin, composition, biogenesis, immunogenicity, and potential applications. The choice of exosome source depends on the specific research or application goals.

Difference between fresh exosome and lyophilisation

The main difference between fresh adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) exosomes and lyophilized (freeze-dried) exosomes lies in their processing and storage methods. Both types of exosomes originate from the same source, but their preservation methods have distinct implications for their properties, stability, and potential applications.

1. Processing

Fresh ADMSC exosomes are isolated from the culture medium of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells and are typically suspended in a suitable buffer solution. In contrast, lyophilized exosomes undergo a freeze-drying process in which they are first frozen and then subjected to a vacuum to remove water content, resulting in a dry, stable product.

2. Stability and shelf life

Lyophilized exosomes are generally more stable and have a longer shelf life compared to fresh exosomes. The freeze-drying process removes water, which can help prevent the degradation of biological molecules and protect the exosomes from potential damage caused by temperature fluctuations during storage and transportation. Fresh exosomes, on the other hand, must be stored at low temperatures (usually -80°C) to maintain their integrity and biological activity, and their shelf life can be limited.

3. Reconstitution

Before use, lyophilized exosomes need to be reconstituted by adding an appropriate buffer solution to achieve the desired concentration. This step is not required for fresh exosomes, as they are already suspended in a buffer solution.

4. Potential impact on biological activity

While lyophilization is intended to preserve the exosomes’ biological activity, the freeze-drying process may potentially affect their structure, composition, or function. It is essential to optimize the lyophilization process and include cryoprotectants to minimize any negative impacts on the exosomes’ properties. Fresh exosomes are not subjected to the lyophilization process, and their biological activity is typically maintained as long as they are stored and handled properly.

5. Transportation and storage

Lyophilized exosomes have the advantage of easier transportation and storage, as they are stable at room temperature or 4°C for short periods and can be stored long-term at -20°C or -80°C. Fresh exosomes, however, require storage at -80°C and need to be transported on dry ice to maintain their stability and integrity.

In summary, the primary differences between fresh ADMSC exosomes and lyophilized exosomes are their processing, stability, shelf life, reconstitution requirements, and potential impact on biological activity. The choice between fresh and lyophilized exosomes will depend on the specific research or application goals and the logistical considerations for storage and transportation.

Discover more about our treatments and exosome therapy advantages

Exosome for Skin

Exosomes can boost the facial’s natural healing, especially when delivered deeply into the skin. The skin will be able to rebuild itself in a natural, healthy way from the inside out. Exosome facial rejuvenation can increase skin collagen in the treated areas by up to six-fold and increases elastin levels by up to 300%.

Exosome for Hair Loss

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) exosomes have emerged as a potential treatment option for hair loss, owing to their regenerative and immunomodulatory properties. Several studies have suggested that ADMSC exosomes may promote hair growth by acting on various cellular and molecular processes involved in hair follicle biology.

Exosome for Scars


Exosomes play essential roles in tissue regeneration; with a similar function to their parent cells, they are easier to store and transport, protecting the bioactive substances they carry from adverse conditions such as pH environments, high temperature, and repeated freezing and thawing. Therefore, exosome therapy may be safer and more efficient than PRP.

Exosome for Orthopaedics

Exosomes therapy for orthopedic treatments promote tissue repair and regeneration in: osteoarthritis, cartilage degeneration, tendon or ligament injuries, tendonitis, tendinopathy, bone fractures or non-unions, avascular necrosis, cartilage injuries, conditions associated with inflammation, tissue damage, and loss of function.

Exosome for Erectile Dysfunction

Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied as a potential therapeutic option for erectile dysfunction (ED). MSC-derived exosomes contain a variety of molecules, such as growth factors, cytokines, and microRNAs, which can potentially improve the underlying causes of ED.

Exosome for Vaginal Rejuvenation

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (AD-MSC) exosomes may have potential for vaginal rejuvenation treatment due to their regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and angiogenic properties.

Exosome for Body Performance

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes have shown potential for enhancing sports performance due to their regenerative, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties. As natural carriers of various bioactive molecules, MSC exosomes can improve body performance and recovery in athletes.

Exosome for Anti-Ageing

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) exosomes have emerged as a therapeutic option for addressing age-related conditions and promoting overall health. The exosomes derived from MSCs have been shown to possess regenerative, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties, making them ideal candidates for anti-aging treatments.

Why Exosome

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) exosomes are increasingly being used in research and therapeutic applications due to their unique properties and potential benefits. Here are some reasons why researchers and clinicians might choose to use ADMSCs exosomes:

1. Source abundance

Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible in the human body, making it a convenient source for isolating mesenchymal stem cells.

2. Minimally invasive extraction

ADMSCs can be obtained through minimally invasive procedures, such as liposuction, which has fewer complications and faster recovery times compared to other methods of stem cell extraction.

3. Immunomodulatory properties

DMSCs exosomes have been found to exhibit immunomodulatory properties, which can potentially reduce inflammation and improve the overall immune response in the recipient.

4. Tissue regeneration and repair

ADMSCs exosomes have shown promising results in promoting tissue regeneration and repair, including the promotion of angiogenesis, modulation of immune responses, and stimulation of cell proliferation and differentiation.

5. Potential therapeutic applications

ADMSCs exosomes have demonstrated potential in various therapeutic applications, such as wound healing, tissue regeneration, and the treatment of various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

6. Low immunogenicity

Exosomes derived from ADMSCs have been reported to have low immunogenicity, meaning they are less likely to trigger an immune response in the recipient, making them suitable for allogeneic transplantation.

7. Cell-free therapy

As exosomes are cell-free, they carry a lower risk of tumor formation and other complications associated with stem cell therapies. This makes them an attractive alternative for regenerative medicine and other therapeutic applications.

8. Ease of storage and transportation

Exosomes can be stored and transported more easily than live cells, which simplifies their use in research and clinical applications.

Mode of action

Exosomes play crucial roles in intercellular communication and the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes.

The mode of action of exosomes can be described through the following steps:

1. Biogenesis

Exosomes are formed through the inward budding of endosomal membranes, which results in the formation of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs). MVBs can either be degraded by fusing with lysosomes or released into the extracellular space by fusing with the plasma membrane.

2. Loading

Exosomes carry a diverse range of biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (including mRNA, miRNA, and other non-coding RNAs). The specific cargo of exosomes depends on the cell type, physiological state, and environmental conditions.

3. Release

Exosomes are released from the parent cell into the extracellular environment through the fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane. This process is facilitated by various proteins, such as Rab GTPases, SNAREs, and ESCRT complexes.

4. Uptake by recipient cells

Exosomes can be taken up by recipient cells through several mechanisms, including direct fusion with the plasma membrane, endocytosis, or receptor-mediated uptake. The specific uptake mechanism depends on the exosomal surface proteins and the recipient cell type.

5. Cargo delivery and functional effects

Once inside the recipient cell, the exosomal cargo (proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) can be released into the cytoplasm and exert various functional effects, such as modulation of gene expression, signaling pathways, and cellular processes.

Overall, the mode of action of exosomes is complex and depends on multiple factors, such as the biogenesis, loading, release, uptake, and cargo delivery processes. By facilitating intercellular communication and the exchange of biomolecules, exosomes play a critical role in both physiological and pathological processes, including immune responses, tissue repair, and the progression of diseases like cancer.

Clinical applications

Exosomes have shown promising results as potential therapeutic agents for a variety of clinical indications. Some of the current clinical indications being explored include:

Cancer: Exosomes are being investigated as a potential delivery system for anti-cancer drugs or as a way to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells.

Regenerative medicine: Exosomes have shown potential for promoting tissue repair and regeneration, and are being studied for their potential use in treating a range of conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and bone and cartilage defects.

Inflammatory and autoimmune disorders: Exosomes may have immunomodulatory effects and are being studied as a potential treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Infectious diseases: Exosomes are being investigated as a potential delivery system for antiviral or antimicrobial agents, or as a way to stimulate the immune system to fight infections.

Exosome Therapy Procedure

Exosomes are extracted from human mesenchymal stem cells and thoroughly tested for quality and quantity. Containing valuable lipids, messenger RNA, cytokines, and proteins, our bank of Exosomes will be administered accordingly with the Specialist recommendation.

With its specialized laboratories housing all the equipment needed to carry out any Exosome treatment successfully, Bioscience is the only clinic with the ability to help patients achieve the desired results. Before any procedure, extensive steps are taken to ensure that all products undergo a strict screening process that certifies sterility, safety for use, and endotoxin testing.

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